*Photo, right most, Captain Steven Lim's about to receive an award at HHC Award Ceremony, July 14, 2010, FOB Hammer, Iraq, 15 days after Manning is arrested. From 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division Facebook Profile
US v. Pfc. Bradley Manning is being conducted in de facto secrecy. This page is a work in progress and may contain errors. The page is developing and may be updated. All updates and amendments will be noted.
For more information on the lack of public and press access to United States v. Pfc. Bradley Manning, visit the Center for Constitutional Rights, which filed a petition requesting the Army Court of Criminal Appeals (ACCA) "to order the Judge to grant the public and press access to the government's motion papers, the court's own orders, and transcripts of proceedings, none of which have been made public to date."
No. 19 on the December 2, 2011 Defense Request for Article 32 Witnesses, December 2, 2011
XXXXXXXXXX [ Captain Steven Lim, Brigade S2 ]. He will testify that he knew about PFC Manning emotional and mental health issues before taking over as the brigade S2. Additionally, he will testify that PFC Manning was counseled on a few occasions due to his emotional and mental issues and that he was informed that PFC Manning was seeing a doctor about his condition. Despite this knowledge, XXXXXXXXXX [ Captain Steven Lim, Brigade S2 ] will testify that he was not aware of the full extent of PFC Manning mental health issues. He will testifying once he learned of the entire facts surrounding PFC Manning, he believed that PFC Manning should not have been deployed. He will also testify that he gave a negative counseling to XXXXXXXXXX [ Master Sergeant Adkins (now Sergeant First Class due to an administrative action) ] for failing to inform him of the various issues PFC Manning was struggling with during the deployment. XXXXXXXXXX [ Captain Steven Lim, Brigade S2 ] will testify that soldiers were authorized to bring music CDs to listen to in the T-SCIF. XXXXXXXXXX [ Captain Steven Lim, Brigade S2 ] will also testify that the T-SCIF failed to draft a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). XXXXXXXXXX [ Captain Steven Lim, Brigade S2 ] will testify that he passed the link to the U.S. Embassy cables to the various analysts. He disseminated the link to the BCT S2 shop and the BN S2's sometime in the beginning of January 2010 in order to allow the analysts to better understand the Iraqi political situation. He will also testify that the comments in the press that say the release of the CIDNE database compromised our key sources and put the lives of sources at risk are inaccurate. Any name in the CIDNE database (Iraq and Afghanistan) were just names put in by a soldier who spoke to some local national and not sources for the United States. XXXXXXXXXX [ Captain Steven Lim, Brigade S2 ] believes that although a name may be in CIDNE, it was likely spelled phonetically and did not contain the full name of the individual. XXXXXXXXXX [ Captain Steven Lim, Brigade S2 ] knows that he had the ability to pull 50 different ways to spell Muhammad when he would do a CIDNE database search. That fact there were so many different ways to spell Muhammad is indicative of the fact the names in the CINDE database were not accurate accounts.
Individuals mentioned in the testimony of Captain Steven Lim:
Article 32, Pretrial Transcript:
See Transcript of US v Pfc. Bradley Manning, Article 32 Pretrial Hearing, 12/17/11
[Next Witness is Captain Steven Lim, one of Manning's superiors in Iraq. Lim is currently Deputy G2 at Fort Meade. He plans resources and training for reserves as they deploy.]
Lim: Our job comprehensive intelligence products. Take different forms of intelligence to meet commander's needs to make decision.
Lim: Army 9 years, Intel 5 years. Before Air Defense Officer.
Lim: Military intelligence... Captain's Career Course... Then graduate level advanced course in intelligence as future battalion officers...
Prosecution: Duties as Intel?
Lim: 2nd Brigade Military Intelligence (MI) Company Command... Deployed three times... Two times as Intel... All deployments to Iraq... Final Fob Hammer, Iraq.
Prosecution: When did you arrive?
Lim: March of 2006.
Lim: Infantry Battalion S2
Prosecution: What did you do?
Lim: Used my small staff of Intel analysts with combat Intel officer for operations. October 2008 and July 2009. We did two rotations six or seven months. We were going to go to Afghanistan. My job...Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) major units...to validate prior to deployment.
[Lim says he met Manning his second time in Iraq.]
Prosecution: What job did you have at brigade?
Lim: Military Intelligence (MI) Company Commander. Assistant Brigade S2.
Lim: Intel Analyst with Brigade 35 Fox identifier.
Prosecution: What are the pre-requisites for 35 Fox?
Lim: Graduate AIT training. Top Secret clearance.
Prosecution: How get Top Secret Clearance?
Lim: Good credit. No past felonies. Good behavior. American citizen.
Prosecution: Can any soldier get 35 Fox ?
Lim: Higher GI score than others.
Prosecution: What does that mean?
Lim: Smarter than other soldiers.
Lim: One. Collection on Systems...aerial platforms...ground base systems...collection platforms and devices. Two. System. All source DGA system. Distributed Common Ground Army. Laptop terminal, where Intel has all resources...with Microsoft Office Suite, Geo-plotting. Found on SIPRNet.
Prosecution: What kind of training do they receive in broad sense?
Lim: Some security training...classification privileges...how to mark. Making sure data is labeled correctly.
Prosecution: Are 35 Foxes trained on recognizing marks?
Prosecution: Sharing. What are the requirements?
Lim: Make sure person has proper access. Should be common sense. We deal with more classified material.
Prosecution: What other systems?
Lim: UADS, other ground base assets, data pulled into SIPRNet...conducting research to narrow down info...
Lim: When you are making a product, you need to nail down product... CIDNE database, Query-Tree...
Lim: CIDNE database is a combined information data network that references all kinds of intelligence: human intelligence, controlled debriefs, state dept debriefs...
Prosecution: Who uses it?
Lim: All sorts of personnel...even medical.
Prosecution: Do 35 Foxes use CIDNE too?
Lim: Yes... Query-Tree, our secret version of Google.
Prosecution: How often do they use CIDNE?
Lim: In a combat environment, everyday.
Prosecution: Why distinguish?
Lim: In garrison environment duties are physical security, system security, assisting on inspection...not as much analysis.
Prosecution: How do they assist?
Lim: QIQC. Quality Insurance Quality Control.
Lim: Majority of units focus on enemy a couple months before deployment [Meaning they practice Intel search and analysis.]
Prosecution: What do you remember about Manning?
Lim: Not a lot. We were really busy.
Prosecution: Was everyone working on simulation?
Lim: Commanders all rely on products...based off something he requests.
Prosecution: Your job is to answer questions of your Commander?
Lim: All historical analysis. Provide historic enemy activity. Put it all together in a product. Then go thru QIQC to make sure product is in line with Intel. Then follow up.
[Next line of questions related to when Lim was promoted.]
Lim: After Second GFC rotation. Once we were deployed.
Lim: January 2010. Replaced guy who could not explain to the commander in the way the commander needed. We were focused on the enemy, and to help troops on the ground.
Prosecution: Manning was on 'Shia threat'? He was put on 'Shia'?
[NOTE: Lim made reference to some analyst placed on 'Sunni threat', some on 'Shia threat'.]
Lim: Manning was focused on 'Shia threat' based on attack patterns...on Shia enemy at Fob Hammer, Iraq.
Prosecution: Where was your office located?
Lim: Command Group.
Prosecution: Anyone in brigade top secret?
Lim: They work on signal intelligence.
Prosecution: Could you get onto network in SCIF? Did you have SIPRnet?
Prosecution: What else?
Lim: NIPRnet and SIPRnet...
Prosecution: SIPRnet secret?
Prosecution: D6 Secret?
Prosecution: Were computers you had on network?
Prosecution: Classified hard drives?
Lim: Yes. We had info that was releasable to Iraqis, translated for Iraqi soldier in Arabic.
Lim: That was a specific caveat. We partnered with Iraq. We were authorized to release that information to Iraqi defense forces, because that was part of our mission to train the Iraqi's how to use information and to share information with Iraqis.
Prosecution: What type of threat did Shia pose?
Lim: One to five attacks a day.
Prosecution: How is that information accessible?
Lim: Able to pull data of historical attacks from the CIDNE database.
Prosecution: Did Manning ever investigate IEDs from Shia attacks?
Prosecution: Could an individual create that work product alone?
Lim: No. It was based off the commander needs, not individuals.
Prosecution: Manning's strengths?
Lim: Statistics. Predictive analysis. Putting that into ArcMap to give visual picture.
Prosecution: Easy process?
Lim: Statistics, yes. Not easy...challenging system to use.
Prosecution: Is this the type of process referenced to data mining?
Lim: Yes. If you didn't use the system a lot...it took some technique, and a lot of practice.
Prosecution: Manning's weakness?
Lim: Trying to get point across. Public speaking.
Prosecution: Do you know anything about NetCentric diplomacy?
Prosecution: Work related searches? Iceland?
Prosecution: Julian Assange?
Prosecution: 15, 6?
Prosecution: CENTCOM Web site?
Prosecution: CENTCOM legal?
Prosecution: GTMO detainee assessments?
Prosecution: How is classified information detected?
Lim: Those who didn't have access, no passcode. Only special soldiers have direct log onto segregated information.
[Note He referred to special soldiers on the ground, I believe who were reporting information.]
Prosecution: What prevented soldiers from burning CDs?
Lim: Well we can't watch every person, 24 hours a day. We signed non-disclosure agreements.
[Prosecution then leads to question about behavioral incidents with Manning.]
Lim: From my knowledge...nighttime supervisor reprimanded Manning for arriving late, and Manning flipped table.
Lim: Took Manning to a behavioral specialist...brigade S2 not given...action wasn't drastic enough to remove him...we needed analysis...we needed work.
[Then Lim talks about how Manning was placed from SCIF to supply section while he was on environmental leave, so he only heard about it.]
Lim: Manning's security changed to derogatory (derog) after an assault on Specialist Schulman [Jihrleah] Showman
Prosecution: In the six years you have been...have you had soldiers with minor behavioral issues?
Lim: Yes. Did you permanently remove them?
Prosecution: Would you say PFC Manning has brought discredit on the Army?
[Defense OBJECTED to line of question. There is a parlay about relevance. I wrote down that the IO OVERRUED, but I am not certain if that is accurate.]
[Defense cross-examines the witness. Defense (Coombs) first speaks about the deployment.]
Defense (Coombs): What were your duties?
Lim: Battalion S2, MI Commander. One Commander per Brigade Combat Team.
Defense (Coombs): 'All Source Intel' officers transferred?
Defense (Coombs): Since 2002?
Lim: Yes. Human Intel. Signal Intel.
Defense (Coombs): Who was not deployed? What guidance did you receive on whom not to deploy?
Lim: All able body persons, not withstanding pending medical issues.
Defense (Coombs): Pressured to take people to meet numbers?
Lim: Due diligence to take as many people as you can...
Defense (Coombs): Only those that absolutely cannot?
Defense (Coombs): To not take someone what was the protocol?
Lim: Chain of Command.
Defense (Coombs): Who was the approving authority?
Lim: Brigade Commander.
Defense (Coombs): You were Assistant Brigade S2 October 2009 and Military Intelligence (MI) Commander at same time?
Defense (Coombs): Responsibilities?
Lim: Attend meeting. Take his requests and issue taskings ...
Defense (Coombs): What sort of interactions did you have with Headquarters?
Lim: A little bit of interaction. Lance dealt mostly with Headquarters.
Defense (Coombs): How long as Assistant Brigade [S2]?
Lim: October 2007 to January 2010. February 6 there was a changed command.
Defense Captain [Casey] Martin [Married name is Fulton] then made you Brigade S2?
Defense (Coombs): When did he take over?
Lim: Week or so before he changed my command sometime January.
Defense (Coombs): Why? Because that is not typical, right?
Defense (Coombs): ...cause you don't want to change command up during deployment?
Defense (Coombs): My Brigade Commander wanted me to be the S2.
Defense (Coombs): How far is your office from the SCIF?
Lim: 10 seconds.
Defense (Coombs): How many officers?
Defense (Coombs): Who was in charge of the night shift?
Lim: Pageant...Specialist...now a Sergeant.
Defense (Coombs): Night shift non commissioned officers?
Lim: Yes. We took the most senior mature specialists for night shift.
Defense (Coombs): Manning worked first at night. As S2 did you have an opportunity to observe Manning?
Defense (Coombs): Manning was only in army for a few years:
Defense (Coombs): Fort Drum was his first assignment?
Defense (Coombs): His first duty assignment?
Defense (Coombs): Would you consider his training minimal?
Defense (Coombs): So other than D6 training nothing else?
Defense (Coombs): Any training on classification outside AIT? Do you know if he received any training?
Lim: I gave a short class from core MNOJ (sp.?) seniors getting classification.
Defense (Coombs): It was not designed for 35 Foxes, though...
Lim: It could have been...
Defense (Coombs): (repeats) But, it was not designed for 35 Foxes?
Defense (Coombs): Occasionally work with individuals for more guidance?
Defense (Coombs): Nightshift takes up tasks the dayshift couldn't get done?
Lim: Yes. And, it is easier to do research at night. It's quieter.
Defense (Coombs) There were a Shia and Sunni threat teams?
Defense (Coombs): At the time Manning was promoted?
Defense (Coombs): Based on his time in service?
Defense (Coombs): Junior spec?
Defense (Coombs): First duty...junior member of the military?
Defense (Coombs): Got really good at computer programs, graphs, brass?
Defense (Coombs): You would look at finer points to give him guidance?
Defense (Coombs): You said, if he really didn't know how to deal with a project, he would stop working?
Defense (Coombs): Take him a while to complete?
Defense (Coombs): Nothing abnormal?
Defense (Coombs): Was he the best 35 Fox you had worked with?
Defense (Coombs): He was moved to dayshift?
Lim: Yes. There is more supervision. More guidance.
Defense (Coombs): Know why moved back on nightshift?
Lim: I do not know.
Defense (Coombs): Do you know why [Major Cliff] Clausen was removed [Lim was promoted to Major Cliff Clausen's post]?
Lim: He could not communicate information to the Commander in a way Commander needed.
Defense (Coombs): [Major Cliff] Clausen was not a hands-on leader? Did he show up?
Lim: No, he was not a hands-on leader. He was there a couple times a day.
Defense (Coombs): Did [Major Cliff] Clausen brief you on personnel?
Defense (Coombs): That atypical?
Defense (Coombs): At the time, were you took over aware of behavioral problems?
Lim: Only what I observed. Nothing more.
Defense (Coombs): On December 20, 2009 what were you told about Specialist Pageant during a counseling session? Were you told Manning was furious? Upset?
Defense (Coombs): Were you told Manning flipped a table, damaged computer and government property?
Defense (Coombs): Told 'minor' outburst has to be restrained by Showman Chief Warrant Officer Two (CW2) [Joshua] Ehresman?
Defense (Coombs): That he was going for his weapon?
Defense (Coombs): That Showman [Chief Warrant Officer Two (CW2)] [Joshua] Ehresman had to dragged him out of SCIF?
[Lim looked increasingly surprised during cross-examination.]
Defense (Coombs): If you were told this behavior would you consider that a 'minor' incident?
Defense (Coombs): Would that qualify for a 'derog' (derogatory classification)
Lim: Yes, if ruled by the proper authorizing authority.
[Discussion of a derogatory classification then followed.]
Lim: I thought it was a little weird the lack of response to that incident. In casual conversation I talked about what I would do in that situation... I would have done a 'derog'.
Defense (Coombs): When you gave that recommend did they follow it?
Lim: No, Sir.
Defense (Coombs): On December 20 2009 Manning became emotional, shoved a chair and began yelling. Did you hear about this?
Defense (Coombs): Would this be acceptable?
Lim: No Sir.
Defense (Coombs): Did you know he wrote memorandums?
Defense (Coombs): Did he [Major Cliff Clausen] share those?
Lim: Yes, very shortly after.
Defense (Coombs): Did you read any?
Defense (Coombs): Do you know why Master Sgt. Paul Adkins was dealing with Manning?
Defense (Coombs): You received a letter of admonishment from [General Robert L.] Caslen on March 2, 2011?
[Defense quotes letter] 'You should have been aware of Master Sgt. Paul Adkins from case and the discipline of enlisted soldiers." Master Sgt. Paul Adkins never shared that information till after?
Lim: I was fairly concerned.
Defense (Coombs): Shocked?
Defense (Coombs): What did you do?
Lim: I counseled him. [General Robert L.] Caslen
Defense (Coombs): Did you shared with him the email that PFC Manning wrote to Master Sgt. Paul Adkins with a picture of himself dressed as a woman...and how his gender identity affects him? How it impacts his ability to think in April 2010. That the letter was not shared with you till after the arrest of PFC Manning?
Defense (Coombs): Did you counsel him in writing?
Defense (Coombs): You said it was obvious Manning was suffering from the 2009 email. Should his security clearance have been removed, and he removed from the SCIF?
Defense (Coombs): Fair to say that the later offense may not have happened?
Defense (Coombs): And, these offenses (charges) may not have happened?
Defense (Coombs): Did Master Sgt. Paul Adkins have duty to report a 'derog'?
Defense (Coombs): Did these concerns predate deployment?
Defense (Coombs): How quickly could you turn off access? Immediately?
Defense (Coombs): Did the SCIF have Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)?
Lim: Told there was one, never saw it.
Defense (Coombs): Fair to say, it didn't?
Lim: Can't say that.
Defense (Coombs): If there weren't an SOP, would be problem?
Lim: Yes. We got an SOP accreditation. I assumed it had an SOP.
Defense (Coombs): Would you be surprised to learn SCIF was not accredited?
Defense (Coombs): When did that responsibility switch over to Master Sgt. Paul Adkins?
Lim: I want to say 2nd or 3rd week of 2010.
Defense (Coombs): Responsible for day to day infosec of SCIF?
Defense (Coombs): Any SSR training for Master Sgt. Paul Adkins?
Lim: I believe a small class.
Defense (Coombs): There is a proper SSR course?
Defense (Coombs): Is SSR supposed to inventory CDs and DVDs?
Defense (Coombs): Suppose to be externally labeled?
Defense (Coombs): Bear an external form [a classification mark]?
Defense (Coombs): How it is labeled?
Defense (Coombs): Why?
Lim: That way you don't put a classified disk into an unclassified machine.
Defense (Coombs): I've seen photos of the SCIF with CDs all over the place?
Lim: Haven't seen those photos. At times the SCIF can be disorganized.
Defense (Coombs): When I zoom in to those photos there are unlabeled CDs all over the place. Is that now how it was?
Defense (Coombs): Were soldiers allowed to bring in personal CDs?
Lim: Music CDs that were unopened.
Defense (Coombs): Were you allowed to leave SCIF with CD?
Lim: For official purposes...
Defense (Coombs): How was it enforced?
Lim: No. You trusted people.
Defense (Coombs): Any sort of protocol for soldier burning something onto a disk?
Lim: Someone would review it.
Defense (Coombs): How was that enforced?
Lim: If you don't grab it, you don't take it out...
Defense (Coombs): Music on same computer as SIPRnet? Correct, by rules?
Lim: No Sir.
Defense (Coombs): Watching movies in SCIF?
Defense (Coombs): Movies on SIPRnet played on D6 machine? Games played?
Lim: I did not.
Defense (Coombs): Games stored on SIPRnet?
Defense (Coombs): Programs that had been downloaded by soldiers?
Lim: I did not see.
Defense (Coombs): Ever hear of anyone saying that they had to install applications for products?
Defense (Coombs): Were you responsible for classification decisions?
Lim: No. It would be the originating authority, who reclassifies information.
Defense (Coombs): Did you ever see CENTCOM classification guidelines, Multi-National Corps - Iraq (MNCI) classification guidelines from your experience? Did everyone use classification guides?
Defense (Coombs): Any training on how to use classification guidelines?
Lim: No, Sir.
Defense (Coombs): How long was your training?
Lim: About an hour...[presentation with] 100 slides.
Defense (Coombs): Ever decide how long an item should be classified?
Defense (Coombs): As more time passes, potential harm decreases?
Defense (Coombs): Ever see any declassification dates?
Lim: No. Just wasn't there.
Defense (Coombs): Any thought given to how long it needed to b classified?
Defense (Coombs): What is the job of an analyst?
Lim: Mission to take and build product or end product for end users. Lots of reading, research.
Defense (Coombs): What sort of skills?
Lim: Comprehensive writing, good briefing, someone who can think outside the box...
Defense (Coombs): Creative?
Lim: Yes Sir.
Defense (Coombs): Where does an analyst get info?
Lim: Databases, other sources, people...
Defense (Coombs): 'All Source' analyst means you look at everything?
Defense (Coombs): How was the CIDNE database used?
Lim: Like Google, you have to filter and decipher information he (commander) wants and pull human Intel, civil debriefs...
Defense (Coombs): SigActs [Significant Acts] big part of the database, important?
Lim: Yes. Plug in date and see what events happened in that area.
Defense (Coombs): So SigActs on CIDNE were big historical documents? What was is going to happen in the future?
Defense (Coombs): SigActs contain future operations?
Lim: Possible. Less often.
Defense (Coombs): SigActs how were they created?
Lim: Ground units...as it happens, op enter, generate, command post, and adjudicates...
Defense (Coombs): Why would a SigAct be created?
Lim: For history, research and analysis...
Defense (Coombs): Is SigActs something for an analyst to look at?
Defense (Coombs): Names of people, key government sources?
Defense (Coombs): If someone says SigActs compromise key sources is that true?
Lim: No. Not related to human intelligence sources...
Defense (Coombs): What are HUMINT reports [Human intelligence]?
Lim: Report that documents one soldier's interaction with another person.
Defense (Coombs): You never put names in SigActs?
Lim: Yes, Sir.
Defense (Coombs): Ludicrous to say the report names?
Defense (Coombs): SigActs traditionally reported as on or immediately thereafter, and tend to be wrong?
Defense (Coombs): May be updated?
Defense (Coombs): So after 72 hours outdated?
Defense (Coombs): So after 72 hrs they become part of the historical documentation?
Defense (Coombs): So then it's historically significant at scale?
Defense (Coombs): Most names would be phonetically written down, right?
[Defense says there are many ways to spell and search for Mohammed in SigActs.]
Defense (Coombs): Goes back to SigActs not most accurate. Do you know analyst had access to diplomatic cables?
Defense (Coombs): Do you know what NetCentric diplomacy is? Regarding net-centric diplomacy, how did you grant access to cables?
Lim: I gave them link through email. Got from headquarters. They said pass along. Felt at time we were so focused on the ground, and needed bigger picture...
Defense (Coombs): So you handed out link and you were saying, 'Go get on and take a look'?
Defense (Coombs): Was there a password?
Defense (Coombs): Millions of people have access to these documents?
Lim: Enormous amounts.
Defense (Coombs): So this isn't like a super secret place to go...just diplomatic cables? If it didn't have a password it was SECRET or below? If it were TOP SECRET it would not be on SIPRnet?
Defense (Coombs): In March 2010 did you know about an equal employment complaint?
Lim: Yes. It involved intense threats.
Defense (Coombs): Find out about whom it was regarding?
Defense (Coombs): Did you talk to Master Sgt. Paul Adkins about the letters?
Lim: Felt like medical professional, the medical system should handle it.
Defense (Coombs): Know why he was reduced?
Defense (Coombs): Who was the Master Sergeant Senior? Can you explain to a non-military person?
[IO objects to Defense language.]
IO: Whom are you speaking to?
Defense (Coombs): He's the highest-ranking person in SCIF? Sets the tone in SP section?
Defense (Coombs): Is that what he did?
[Prosecution re-examines Capt. Steven Lim.]
Prosecution: Was Manning a smart soldier?
Prosecution: Rely on him?
Prosecution: Rely on his information during deployment.
Prosecution: Did he understand information management?
Prosecution: Why do you say that?
Lim: We went through that training.
Prosecution: Why specifically for Manning?
Lim: Because it was his job to know.
Prosecution: Was any soldier authorized to burn CD and take it out for personal use?
[End of Bradley Manning Pretrial Day 2.]
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