Witness | US v Pfc. Manning, Specialist Jihrleah Showman, S2 Section, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division

US v. Pfc. Bradley Manning is being conducted in de facto secrecy. This page is a work in progress and may contain errors. The page is developing and may be updated. All updates and amendments will be noted.

For more information on the lack of public and press access to United States v. Pfc. Bradley Manning, visit the Center for Constitutional Rights, which filed a petition requesting the Army Court of Criminal Appeals (ACCA) "to order the Judge to grant the public and press access to the government's motion papers, the court's own orders, and transcripts of proceedings, none of which have been made public to date."

*Deleted September 12, 2012 by Jihrleah Showman. See screenshot.

General Description

Showman_FBPic1crop.jpg*Image of Jihrleah Showman at AIT [Advanced Individual Training in 2007] from her Facebook profile.

A small portion of Specialist Jihrleah Showman's testimony was presented in a CLOSED SESSION as per defense to protect the accused's right to a fair trial.

Specialist Jihrleah Showman (female) was in the US Army for four years and two months.

Showman met Bradley Manning in March 2009. Showman attended AIT [Advanced Individual Training] at Fort Huachuca in July 2007. Showman attended DSGS [Distributed Common Ground System computer] training at Division Headquarters with Bradley Manning before both of them went to JRTC [Joint Readiness Training Center] Iraq.

Showman testified that Bradley Manning received two separate TDY's [Temporary Duty Assignment] classified under SECRET at Fort Drum and Washington, DC.

Showman deployed to Iraq with Bradley Manning when they left Fort Drum, NY on 11 Oct 2009.

Showman worked with Bradley Manning in the 2nd Brigade T-SCIF at FOB Hammer, Iraq, which functioned as a fusion cell. Showman was in the same unit and Bradley Manning's team leader. She was Bradley Manning's supervisor for the first two months of deployment on the night-shift. Showman worked for the first two months of deployment with Bradley Manning on the night shift, then Showman was switched to day-shift. Then, Manning was moved to day-shift with her.

Showman testified that Bradley Manning was a Shia analyst. Showman testified that any information traffic that came was disseminated to the Shia analysts, who mined the data for information using the DSGS [pronounced "desigs" Distributed Common Ground System] machines. Analysts would create presentations for officers, who gave them to the Brigade Commander. Analysts would search by keyword, and the system had targeting folders for specific individuals. Analyst would input individual names, incidents, and specific dates. Analysts in the T-SCIF would go through HUMINT [Human Intelligence] reports and gather pertinent information. According to Showman, analysts had "targeting packets" on every Shia and Sunni individual that came across an analyst's desks. "Targeting packets" stored was on the T-SCIF shared drive.

Showman testified that analysts in the T-SCIF at FOB Hammer, Iraq also used other tools to communicate and map the AO [area of operation] and digital position of units and the enemy. Showman did not know what Wget was.

Showman testified that Bradley Manning had computer issues "if not weekly then bi-weekly". Showman testified that Jason Allen Milliman, Field Software Engineer, Contractor would "have to correct the system before it crashed multiple times."

Showman testified that Bradley Manning left the Brigade T-SCIF the morning of 9 May 9 2010, after Bradley Manning allegedly assaulted Showman on 7 May 2010. Showman says that Bradley Manning "punched me in the face, unprovoked."

Showman testified that she supervised Bradley Manning at Fort Drum, NY between March and early May 2009, and had daily contact with him.

Showman testified about an early May 2009 incident with Bradley Manning before deployment. Showman testified that Bradley Manning missed PT formation and Showman went to the barracks to find out where Bradley Manning was. When she knocked on Bradley Manning's door, Manning opened it and Showman testified that Manning looked like he had just woken up. Showman testified that Manning was dressed in civilian clothes. Showman testified that she told Manning that "he needed to get dressed and get downstairs." Once Manning got into uniform, she talked to Manning as she walked with him back to formation. She asked him, "How he had slept, why he wasn't at formation, was it an alarm situation? Why hadn't he shown up? " Showman testified that Manning did not respond to anything that Showman said to him. Showman testified that she told Manning she would have to counsel him, and that he would have to show up early for a couple weeks for correction. When they came upon Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action), Showman testified that Manning allegedly started screaming at the top of his lungs and saliva was coming out of his mouth. Showman testified that Manning was allegedly swinging his arms around. At that point, Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action) approached Manning, and Manning stopped. Showman testified that Manning's fists were allegedly still clenched and Manning continued to make grunting noises. Showman testified that when Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action) asked Manning what was wrong, Manning said that he could not take messing up, that he "hated messing up." Showman testified that she recommended counseling because Manning lost his "military bearing", and Showman set up a meeting with Manning. According to Showman's testimony, no one alerted the Company Commander at Fort Drum, NY and no one recommended a behavior evaluation. Showman testified that she recommended further action to Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action) and that she told Adkins that Manning was a threat to himself and others, that Manning should not have classified actions, and that Showman thought that Manning should not deploy. Showman testified that Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action) did not pass any of that information along. Showman testified that she knows that Adkins said something to the S2.

Showman testified about another alleged incident with Bradley Manning and a Lieutenant, where the Lieutenant asked Bradley Manning to freeze and Manning was unresponsive. Showman testified that she asked Manning of something was wrong and he did not speak. Showman testified that she reported the incident to Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action) and that she and Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action) sat down with Bradley Manning to talk to him. Showman testified that during that conversation, Bradley Manning told her and Adkins that he felt paranoid, and that Manning felt that people were listening in on his conversations. Showman testified that she asked Bradley Manning if he wanted to harm himself, and Manning said he was not suicidal, but he felt paranoid because people were listening to him and watching his every move. Showman testified that she asked Bradley Manning if he heard voices in his head, and Bradley Manning told Showman that he did not. Showman testified that based on this conversation she felt that Bradley Manning had a high level of paranoia.

Showman testified that she confronted Bradley Manning when he first came to the unit that because she said he wasn't completing tasks. Showman testified that Bradley Manning told her that the reason he wasn't getting task complete was because of his paranoia of others. Showman testified that Adkins told her that he reported the incident to someone. Showman testified that she recommended a command-directed referral [in order to hear from health services on what would be discussed with Manning during counseling sessions] to Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action).

Showman testified that when she saw Bradley Maning's name on the deployment list she was furious. When she went to Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action) about Manning's name being on the deployment list, Adkins told her that Manning would be deployed and Showman would have to deal with it.

Showman testified that Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action) was the NCOIC [Non Commissioned Officer in Charge] and so it was his prerogative to chose to chose who worked on the day and night shifts.

Showman testified that she believed that the S2's leadership was very restrictive. Showman testified that she believed that leaders were given the position but that they were not given much control over soldiers. Showman testified that everything including training and counseling had to go through Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action)

Showman testified that after a time she was replaced by another Specialist at the NCOIC [Non Commissioned Officer in Charge] of the night-shift.

Showman testified that she barely saw Major Cliff Clausen [Captain Steven Lim replaced him as the Brigade S2] in the S2 section, and that he stayed mostly in his office.

Showman testified that Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action) did not exercise control over the soldiers in the S2 section.

Showman testified that she reported to Chief Warrant Officer, Two (CW2) Hondo Hat Hack but that the only person that Showman had access to was Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action), and that counseling for Showman was not available. Showman testified that she stopped fighting for counseling, and that she was only counseled once.

*Video of Jihrleah Showman from Baghdad, Iraq December 2009 from dvidshub.net

Showman testified that she was a witness to the December 2009 incident with Bradley Manning and then Specialist Daniel Padgett. Showman testified that her desk was outside the entrance to the T-SCIF conference room. Showman testified that she heard Manning scream and she got up and went to the door of the conference room. Showman testified that she saw Manning sitting on one side of the table and then Specialist Daniel Padgett was sitting on the other side. Showman testified that she saw Bradley Manning allegedly flip the conference room table and that she saw a computer get broken. Showman testified that she saw then Specialist Daniel Padgett stand up and move toward the table. Showman testified that she saw then then Specialist Daniel Padgett put his hand out and try to talk Manning down. Showman testified that she saw Manning allegedly look around and see an M4, US Army assault rifle. Showman testified that she saw Manning allegedly reach for the M4. Showman testified that she saw [see note] grab Bradley Manning from behind and drag Manning away. [NB There is a discrepancy about the identity of the person who allegedly grabbed Manning during the December 2009 incident with then Specialist Daniel Padgett between my own, Reitman's, and the anonymous transcriber notes. According to my transcript of Captain Steven Lim's testimony, and Reitman's transcript of Showman, Chief Warrant Officer Two (CW2) Joshua Ehresman grabbed Manning. But this transcriber says that Padgett grabbed Manning.] [See note] dragged Manning a couple of feet, and then Manning sat. Showman testified that Manning did not receive an Article 15 [Non-Judicial Punishment]. Showman testified that she spoke to Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action) about the incident and told Adkins that Manning should no longer be in the T-SCIF. Showman testified that Manning was not removed. Showman testified that the December 2009 incident with Specialist Daniel Padgett should not have just remained in the S2 shop. Showman testified that the First Sergeant did eventually find out because Showman's commanding officer Chief Warrant Officer, Two (CW2) Hondo Hat Hack told the First Sergeant. Showman testified that Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant 1st Class due to administrative action) did not report the incident to the First Sergeant. Showman testified that she escorted Bradley Manning to meet with the First Sergeant and that she told the First Sergeant that Manning should have never deployed and that this was not the first time and that she was not surprised about the incident.

Showman testified that she believes that soldier and leaders have a responsibility to report matters of concern, security, and DEROG's. Showman testified that in order to DEROG someone, the Commander needs to place a recommendation and indicate what actions lead to the derogatory determination. Showman testified that the Commander checks a box indicating whether an individual can retain their security clearance of whether their clearance should be rescinded or terminated, so the Brigade can deliver it to the Division.

Showman testified that she was the acting Security Manager in the T-SCIF, and that First Lieutenant Elizabeth Fields was the Security Manager before her.

Showman testified that she felt that the S2 section tried to keep everything within the shop and that any incidents that occurred did not reach the Company level, and they should have (so only those as high as the S2 section hear about the incidents).

Showman testified about a 7 May 2010 incident that occurred between between 8:00 p.m. and 10:00 p.m. (around shift change) in the conference room of the T-SCIF where she said she saw Bradley Manning curled into a ball on the floor in the fetal position. Showman testified that she reported the incident to Chief Warrant Officer Two (CW2) Joshua Ehresman and told Chief Warrant Officer Two (CW2) Joshua Ehresman "Be ready for something to happen again." Showman testified after seeing the incident she left the T-SCIF because it was the end of her work day. Showman testified that on 8 May 2010 at around 12:00 a.m. or 1:00 a.m., Showman was awoken and called back to the T-SCIF. Captain Casey Martin (married name Fulton) testified that she called Specialist Jihrleah Showman back to the T-SCIF. Showman testified that she was allegedly assaulted by Bradley Manning. Showman testified that after Bradley Manning allegedly assaulted her, Showman pinned Manning to the ground. Showman testified that after she pinned Manning to the ground, Manning said, "I'm tired of this." Showman testified that Manning also said that he was scared Behavioral health would find out about him and that if they found out they would remove him from the Army.

Showman testified that she saw soldiers listening to music on DSGS-A [Distributed Common Ground System - Army] machines, configured specifically for security analysts. Showman testified that the authorized chat application on DSGS-A [Distributed Common Ground System - Army] machines was "cyjabber" but analysts used mIRC chat. Showman testified that they installed it on their desktops from the T-SCIF shared drive. Showman testified that she believes that Bradley Manning helped her install mIRC on her DSGS-A [Distributed Common Ground System - Army] machine, "because he was the most knowledgable about computers." Showman testified that she used mIRC to talk to other targeting Divisions.

Showman testified that she actually found the Jul 2007 Apache video known as "Collateral Murder" when she was going through folders that belonged to the fire section. Showman testified that she was looking at videos "to improve my professional development." Showman testified that she started looking at the Jul 2007 Baghdad Apache airstrike video for "no reason in particular" and that she had looked at a few others in addition. Showman testified that she and Chief Warrant Officer, Two (CW2) Hondo Hat Hack would watch videos together to see how Chief Warrant Officer, Two (CW2) Hondo Hat HackChief Warrant Officer, Two (CW2) Hondo Hat Hack's section would respond to situations like the one in the Jul 2007 Baghdad Apache airstrike video. Showman testified that Chief Warrant Officer, Two (CW2) Hondo Hat Hack was grooming her to be a targeting analyst for a future deployment. Showman testified that she watched the Jul 2007 Baghdad Apache airstrike video four of five times. Showman said, one other soldier, and three of four officers were watching the Jul 2007 Baghdad Apache airstrike video with her and discussing it. Showman testified that one other soldier and three or four officers, who were viewing the Jul 2007 Baghdad Apache airstrike video, discussed what they saw in the video and tried to analyze "what things could be perceived or why the military was taking specific tactics in dealing with the enemy." Showman testified that the one other soldier or three or four officers did not discuss rules of engagement while viewing the Jul 2007 Baghdad Apache airstrike video. Showman testified that there was an "answer given" about the military firing on the van while she, one other soldier, and three or four officers viewed the Jul 2007 Baghdad Apache airstrike video.

Showman testified that Bradley Manning shared some of his problems with her.

Showman testified that she was never authorized to take computers out of the T-SCIf and that she signed at least one NDA that said that she had to be silent for 80 to 100 years.

No. 34 on the December 2, 2011 Defense Request for Article 32 Witnesses

XXXXXXXXXX [ Specialist Jihrleah Showman ] will testify about being aware of PFC Manning's emotional issues. She will testify that she went to XXXXXXXXXX [ Master Sergeant Paul David Adkins (now Sergeant First Class due to administrative action) ] and recommended that PFC Manning not deploy due to his emotional issues. She will testify that she believes that she was the first in the T-SCIF to see the "Apache video" which she found of her own accord in a network folder. She will testify that she called XXXXXXXXXX [ WHO IS THIS? ], XXXXXXXXXX [ WHO IS THIS? ], and another soldier over to see the video. XXXXXXXXXX [ Specialist Jihrleah Showman ] will testify that over the next few days, several of the T-SCIF personnel debated about whether the actions of the Apache crew were appropriate under the circumstances. XXXXXXXXXX [ Specialist Jihrleah Showman ] will testify about her time as PFC Manning direct supervisor and her multiple observations of PFC Manning both before and during deployment that indicated to her PFC Manning was struggling both emotionally and mentally.

Individuals named in the testimony of Specialist Jihrleah Showman:

Specialist Jihrleah Showman testimony at US v Pfc. Bradley Manning, Article 32 Pretrial Hearing, 12/20/11

See Transcript of US v Pfc. Bradley Manning, Article 32 Pretrial Hearing, 12/20/11

US CALLS MS. JIHRLEAH SHOWMAN via TELEPHONE

[Prosecution calls Ms. Jihrleah Showman.]

Prosecution: You're Ms. Jihrleah Showman?

Showman: Yes.

Prosecution: When did you deploy?

Showman: June 25, 2011.

Prosecution: How long were you in?

Showman: Four years, two months.

Prosecution: What rank were you when you left?

Showman: Specialist.

Prosecution: How do you know Pfc. Manning?

Showman: I was in the same unit and was his team leader. We met in early March 2009, after I first came to the unit.

Prosecution: What was your M.O.S. [Military Occupational Specialty]?

Showman: 35 Foxtrot.

Prosecution: What was Manning's?

Showman: 35 Foxtrot.

Prosecution: Before you arrived at the 2nd Brigade, did you attend AIT [Advanced Individual Training ] at Fort Huachuca? And when?

Showman: Yes. July 2007, approximately.

Prosecution: What training did you do there?

Showman: Training on how to be "all source" analyst. Initially: how to handle, disseminate, and destroy classified info. We were instructed on everything that classified information had to do with the country.

Prosecution: Did you also complete [missed] training?

Showman: Yes.

Prosecution: Did you need a security clearance?

Showman: You needed at least SECRET clearance before you could finish training.

Prosecution: Do any training with Manning?

Showman: We attended DSGS [Distributed Common Ground System computer] training that lasted approximately one week at Division Headquarters.

Prosecution: After JRTC [Joint Readiness Training Center]?

Showman: I believe before.

Prosecution: Did Manning attend JRTC?

Showman: Yes.

Prosecution: Iraq or Afghanistan rotation?

Showman: I believe Iraq.

Prosecution: Any other training?

Showman: Myself no, but Manning had received two separate TDY's [Temporary Duty Assignment] classified under SECRET. One at Fort Drum, one in Washington, D.C.

Prosecution: Related to his job as a 35 Fox?

Showman: Yes.

Prosecution: Did you deploy with the unit?

Showman: Yes.

Prosecution: When?

Showman: 11 Oct 2009 was when we left Fort Drum.

Prosecution: Did you deploy with Pfc. Manning?

Showman: Yes.

Prosecution: Worked where?

Showman: Brigade S.C.I.F. Functioned as a fusion cell.

Prosecution: [Missed question.]

Showman: Yes, at F.O.B. Hammer.

Prosecution: [Missed question]

Showman: Yes, I worked with Pfc. Manning during the first two months of deploying during the night shift. Then we were separated by day and night shifts before he was moved to day shift with me.

Prosecution: What did he do?

Showman: Shia analyst.

Prosecution: [Missed question.]

Showman: Yes, in the S.C.I.F.

Prosecution: What was that?

Showman: Any traffic that came in the Shia people group, they would disseminated to specific Shia analysts; and they would data mine for further information on individuals or create presentations for officers, but they dealt with that group.

Prosecution: What did data mining include?

Showman: Special programs on DSGS [pronounced "desigs" Distributed Common Ground System] machines that allowed files to be stored, accessed in specific relation to individuals. Information originally came from [missed], we'd put that on the program, and you could use keywords to find stuff. They also had specific targeting folders for specific individuals.

Prosecution: What information would you input?

Showman: People we knew, incidents, specific dates. But typically part of individual names that we were aware of at the time.

Prosecution: What did enlisted analysts do?

Showman: Went through HUMINT [Human Intelligence] reports and gathered pertinent info. We had targeting packets on every individual that came across our desk, whether Sunni or Shia. They'd place that on share drives in specific Shia folders and gather more info. And then whatever officers would request to give Brigade Commander a better picture of enemy in area, they'd be able to complete projects along those lines.

Prosecution: Outside of DSGS [Distributed Common Ground System], any other tools?

Showman: We used [sounds like C Pop], but only to communicate as our map of our AO [area of operation] and the digital position of our units and our enemy's position.

Prosecution: Know what WGET is?

Showman: No.

Prosecution: Never needed for your job?

Showman: No.

Prosecution: Did Pfc. Manning ever have computer issues?

Showman: If not weekly then bi-weekly his computer would freeze up, and Mr. Milliman would have to correct system before it crashed multiple times.

Prosecution: When did the accused leave the brigade S.C.I.F.?

Showman: Approximately May 9, [2010], the morning after he assaulted myself.

Prosecution: Why was he removed?

Showman: Because he attacked - he had punched me in the face, unprovoked, and displayed uncontrollable behavior that was deemed untrustworthy at the time.

Prosecution: How long were you Manning's supervisor?

Showman: I believe a month or two.

Prosecution: This was right at beginning of deployment?

Showman: Yes.

PROSECUTION REQUESTS CROSS-EXAMINATION FOLLOWED BY CLOSED PORTION OF HEARING.

DEFENSE REQUESTS CLOSED PORTION FIRST, THEN CROSS-EXAMINATION.

[According to Rainey Reitman, "The defense requested a closed hearing to present information to have the IO decide on whether to allow a portion of Showman's testimony to be provided in a closed session."]

CLOSED SESSION, COURT ROOM FEED CUT TO PRESS POOL.

Prosecution (Overgaard): Ms. Showman, if you could just hold for a little while, we have to close the courtroom.

10:11 a.m. COURT CALLED TO ORDER

Investigating Officer: During the closed session, I determined that a very limited portion of Ms. Showman's testimony should be closed in order for the Accused to have a fair trial. Closed portion lasted approximately 5 minutes. We'll now continue with Ms. Showman's testimony. Government?

Investigating Officer: Hi, Ms. Showman. [Explains rules, still under oath.] Ms. Showman, you're admonished... [Missed].

DEFENSE EXAMINES MS. JIHRLEAH SHOWMAN

Defense (Coombs): I just have a few questions for you. Let me start off by asking few questions about your time as a supervisor.

Showman: Ok.

Defense (Coombs): You supervised in garrison before deployment? Late April, early May 2009?

Showman: I would say probably March timeframe.

Defense (Coombs): Daily contact with him?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Early May time, you had incident.

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Involved him missing a PT formation?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): You went to barracks to find out where he was?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Knocked on his door? He opened his door. Looked like he had just woken up. Dressed in civilian clothes?

Showman: [Answers, "Yes" to all.]

Defense (Coombs): At that point you weren't yelling.

Showman: No.

Defense (Coombs): What did you say?

Showman: Told him, "You need to get dressed and get downstairs right now."

[They discuss importance of formation to determine accountability, etc.]

Defense (Coombs): Once Pfc. Manning got into uniform, you walked back to formation and talked to him. How did he appear?

Showman: He was very quiet. Didn't respond to anything I said. I believe I asked how he had slept, why he wasn't at formation, was it an alarm situation? Why hadn't he shown up? I don't remember him responding.

Defense (Coombs): As you got closer, you saw Master Sergeant Adkins. How did he appear?

Showman: I said I would have to counsel him and that he would have to show up early for a couple weeks for correction. When Adkins came, Manning started screaming at the top of his lungs. Extremely loud. Saliva was coming out of his mouth. My guess was as loud as he could. He was swinging his arms around.

Defense (Coombs): You stepped back?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Screaming lasted several seconds?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Master Sergeant Adkins approached Manning?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): That caused him to stop?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): But his fists were still clenched?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): And he continued to make grunting noises?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Adkins asked what's wrong, and [Manning] said he could not take messing up - he hated messing up?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Now you recommended counseling, right?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): He lost his military bearing, right? Which is how the military is supposed to present itself?

[Investigating Officer asks Defense to not explain military bearing.]

Defense (Coombs): You set up a meeting with Manning?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Did anyone else alert the Company Commander to his outburst?

Showman: Not that I know of.

Defense (Coombs): Did anyone recommend behavior evaluation?

Showman: No.

Defense (Coombs): You recommended further action to Adkins? Told him you felt Manning was a threat to himself and others? That he should not have classified actions? You told him you thought he should not deploy?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Did Adkins pass any of that information along?

Showman: No.

PROSECUTION OBJECTION: RELEVANCE

[Coombs argues about discovery and the opportunity to ask questions.]

Defense (Coombs): I'm asking about whether she is aware - whether the team leader knows what is happening to their soldier.

DEFENSE CONTINUES EXAMINING MS. JIHRLEAH SHOWMAN

Defense (Coombs): I'll ask the exact same question. Do you know - do you know - if Master Sergeant Adkins ever informed the Company Commander?

Showman: I do not know. I know he said something to the S2.

Defense (Coombs): So that would be a no?

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): And you made these recommendations because you felt Manning was unstable?

Showman: That is one of the reasons, yes.

Defense (Coombs): Manning was asked to freeze by the Lieutenant?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): And he was unresponsive. You walked up to him, asked if something was wrong? He didn't speak?

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): You went to Adkins again.

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): You and Master Sergeant Adkins sat Manning down. Talked to him. During the conversation, Manning told you he felt paranoid. He felt people were listening in on his conversations. You asked him if he wanted to harm himself.

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): He said no, he wasn't suicidal. But he felt paranoid because people were listening to him and watching his every move. You asked him if he heard voices in his head? He told you that he did not. Why did you ask him that?

Showman: Not that I am a medical professional, but I was trying to determine how severe this may be.

Defense (Coombs): You were doing that because you were his team leader. Which was one of your responsibilities: to take care of soldiers and make sure they were okay?

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): Based on this, you felt he had a high level of paranoia?

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): He wasn't getting tasks done, like when he first came to the unit?

Showman: When I first came, yes.

Defense (Coombs): He wasn't completing tasks?

Showman: To my understanding, yes.

Defense (Coombs): You confronted him?

Showman: I believe I did.

Defense (Coombs): And he said it was because of his paranoia about others?

Showman: That was one of his excuses, yes.

Defense (Coombs): Did you think this had something to do with gender identity disorder?

[Transcriber note that Showman basically answers, "No," to Coomb's question, and that she didn't know anything about gender identity disorder. Coombs then asks Showman more about Adkins and his actions.]

Showman: He [Adkins] did tell me that he reported this to somebody.

Defense (Coombs): Did you know the difference between a self-referral and a command-directed referral? If it is a self-referral, you don't know what's happening at health services. And you recommended a command-directed referral [in order to hear from health services on what would be discussed with Manning during counseling sessions], but that didn't happen?

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): Once you saw his name on the deploy list, you were furious to see it listed?

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): You went to speak to Master Sergeant Adkins again? And were told that you would have to deal with it?

Showman: I wouldn't say that I would used those words...

Defense (Coombs): You were told it would happen?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): And that you would have to deal with it?

Showman: Correct.

[Coombs and Showman discuss the situation in Iraq and decisions about shifts.]

Defense (Coombs): Mass Sergeant Adkins decided who was on the day shift? Because he was the overall NCOIC [Non-Commissioned Officer in Charge]? So he also decided about the night shift?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): I now want to ask you about the S2.

Showman: Ok.

Defense (Coombs): You believe the leadership was very restrictive?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Leaders were given the position but weren't given much control over soldiers?

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): Everything had to go thru Adkins, including training and counseling? He oversaw all equipment and all soldiers within the section?

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): Soldiers were not being counseled as they should?

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): After a time, you were replaced by another Specialist?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): With regard to Major Clausen, that was also at the S2?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Barely saw him? He mostly stayed in his office?

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): Given that you didn't see him around, he didn't exercise control over the soldiers of the S2 [Intelligence] section?

Showman: I would disagree with part of that. He didn't control the soldiers.

Defense (Coombs): So the soldiers were controlled by Adkins?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): The person responsible for you was CW2 [Chief Warrant Officer, Two Hondo] Hat Hack?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): But the only person you had access to was Adkins?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): And counseling wasn't available?

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): You stopped fighting for counseling?

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): Were counseled only once?

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): You saw the 20 December 2009 event between [Specialist Daniel] Padgett and Manning?

Showman: Can't remember date.

Defense (Coombs): Your desk was outside entrance to conference room?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): You heard Manning scream?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): You got up and walked to door?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Saw Manning sitting on one side of the table, Specialist [Daniel ] Padgett on other side of table? You saw Manning flip the table and see a computer get broken? Specialist Padgett stood up and went toward the table? He put his hand out and tried to talk Manning down?

Showman: I believe so.

Defense (Coombs): You saw Manning looking around, and he saw an M4? What is that?

Showman: Army's assault rifle. Equivalent of an M16 but has a shorter barrel.

[Investigating Officer tells Coombs not to explain; Coombs continues and chides the Investigating Officer for not knowing what a S.C.I.F. was earlier.]

Defense (Coombs): Based on what you saw, Manning was about to reach for M4?

Showman: That is what I saw.

Defense (Coombs): And before he could, [Specialist Daniel ] Padgett grabbed him from behind? Like a full nelson that you would see in a wrestling match? And he dragged Manning away?

[NB There is a discrepancy between my own, Reitman's, and this transcribers as to who grabbed Manning during the M4 incident. See Captain Steven Lim's testimony. According to my transcript of Lim's testimony, and Reitman's transcript of Showman, Chief Warrant Officer Two (CW2) Joshua Ehresman grabbed Manning. But this transcriber says that Padgett grabbed Manning. When I first heard Captain Steven Lim's testimony, I noted that Showman grabbed Manning, but that clearly isn't the case, based on Showman's testimony.]

Showman: Only had to drag him a couple feet away, then he sat.

Defense (Coombs): Did Manning receive an Article 15 [Non-Judicial Punishment]?

Showman: Not to my knowledge.

Defense (Coombs): Did you talk to Adkins?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Did you tell Adkins that he should no longer be in the S.C.I.F.?

Showman: I probably did.

Defense (Coombs): And he didn't remove him?

Showman: Don't know, but he was still working there.

Defense (Coombs): Based on your experience, soldiers and leaders have the responsibility to report matters of concern? Increase security? And this should instigate a derog?

Showman: Right.

Defense (Coombs): What is your understanding of derog?

Showman: In order to derog, the Commander needs to place a recommendation. Indicate what actions led to derogatory determination. He'll check a box indicating whether an individual can retain clearance or whether it should be rescinded or terminated, so the Brigade can deliver it to Division.

Defense (Coombs): Who's responsible for derogs in S.C.I.F.?

Showman: The Security Manager.

Defense (Coombs): Who is the security manager?

Showman: I was the acting security manager at the time.

Defense (Coombs): Who was before?

Showman: Lieutenant Fields.

Defense (Coombs): S2 section at the time, did it try to keep everything within the shop?

Showman: I felt it did.

Defense (Coombs): Explain?

Showman: Any incidents that occurred, I felt it didn't reach Company level, when my understanding was, that it should have. So when it was kept internally, only those as high as the S2 heard about incidents.

Defense (Coombs): The [Specialist Daniel] Padgett -Manning incident shouldn't just remain in S2 shop, right?

Showman: Right.

Defense (Coombs): Sergeant did finally find out because CW2 [Chief Warrant Officer, Two Hondo] Hat Hack?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Not from Adkins?

Showman: No.

Defense (Coombs): Took CW2 [Chief Warrant Officer, Two Hondo] Hat Hack telling him to get the info to him?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): You actually escorted Manning to meet with the Sergeant? You told the First Sergeant that he should never have deployed, that this wasn't the first time, and that you were not surprised that this had happened?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Did you find Manning curled into a ball?

Showman: Shortly after this. The night of May 7 [2010]. He was in the conference room of the S.C.I.F.

Defense (Coombs): What time?

Showman: Between 8:00 and 10:00 [p.m.] in the evening around our shift change time.

Defense (Coombs): You reported to [Chief Warrant Officer Two (CW2) Joshua] Ehresman?

Showman: I believe I said, "Be ready for something to happen again." I told him what I saw, that Manning was in a fetal position.

Defense (Coombs): Why did you tell him, "Be ready for something to happen again?"

Showman: I assumed his actions would lead up to some of the displays we had already seen Manning produce.

Defense (Coombs): At that point you left the S.C.I.F. because it was the end of your shift?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Few hours later, you were called back to the S.C.I.F.?

Showman: Around midnight or one in the morning.

Defense (Coombs): This is normally when you sleep?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): Shortly after you came back, that is when you were allegedly assaulted?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): And after he assaulted you, you pinned him to the ground?

Showman: Yes. He said, "I'm tired of this."

Defense (Coombs): And did he say, "I'm tired of everyone watching? I'm tired of [Missed]?"

Showman: I don't recall.

Defense (Coombs): Did he tell you that he said that he was scared what Behavioral Health would find out about him?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): He said if they would found out, they would have him removed from Army?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): S.C.I.F. activity. You saw soldiers watching movies and listening to music? All on their DSGS-A [Distributed Common Ground System - Army] machines?

Showman: All except movies.

Defense (Coombs): And DSGS-A machines were configured specifically for security analysts?

Showman: Repeat?

Defense (Coombs): Person who is not a 35 Fox or not in that field, they wouldn't work off DSGS-A [Distributed Common Ground System - Army] machines?

Showman: To my knowledge, no.

Defense (Coombs): Authorized chat application on computers was [sounds like "cyjabber"] ?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): No one used?

Showman: No.

Defense (Coombs): Everyone used mIRC chat?

Showman: Yes.

Defense (Coombs): They installed down onto desktop from shared drive?

Showman: From my understanding, it was not installed, but I don't think it was installed on desktop.

Defense (Coombs): Yeah, it was put there as an executable link, and it would start? You actually had a soldier help you put mIRC chat on your computer?

Showman: Correct.

Defense (Coombs): Want to ask you about the Apache video, now known as Collateral Murder questions.

Showman: Ok.

Defense (Coombs): You actually found that video.

Showman: Yes. I was going through folders that belonged to the fire section. We were looking through different videos to improve my professional development.

Defense (Coombs): Why did you start looking at this video?

Showman: No reason in particular. I looked at a few others. But we would watch together - me and CW2 [Chief Warrant Officer, Two Hondo] Hat Hack - how his section responds to situations like that. He was grooming me to be a targeting analyst for future deployment.

Defense (Coombs): How many times did you watch?

Showman: Four to five times.

Defense (Coombs): Were other soldiers also watching?

Showman: One other soldier and three to four officers were watching.

Defense (Coombs): Was anyone talking?

Showman: Few of us discussed, yes.

Defense (Coombs): What was discussion about?

Showman: We discussed what we saw in video and tried to analyze what things could be perceived as or why the military was taking specific tactics in dealing with enemy.

Defense (Coombs): Any discussion regarding rules of engagement?

Showman: No.

Defense (Coombs): Discussion regarding military firing on a van?

Showman: I believe there was an answer given about that.

Defense (Coombs): So there was concern as to why a van was fired upon?

Showman: I believe so.

PROSECUTION EXAMINES MS. JIHRLEAH SHOWMAN

Prosecution: Ma'am. You spoke about mIRC chat with defense. Who helped you put it on your comp?

Showman: I believe it was Manning.

Prosecution: Why?

Showman: He was the most knowledgeable about computers.

Prosecution: What would you use it for?

Showman: I used it to talk to other targeting Divisions.

Prosecution: So for official purposes?

Showman: Yes.

Prosecution: You also spoke about defense saying Pfc. Manning discussed his problems with you?

Showman: Yes.

Prosecution: Did he share all his problems with you?

Showman: Some.

Prosecution: Did he ever tell you he was chatting with Julian Assange?

Showman: No.

Prosecution: That he had hundreds of thousands of cables?

Showman: No.

Prosecution: But that if people knew, he would be out?

Showman: Yes.

Prosecution: Were you ever authorized to take computers out of the S.C.I.F.?

Showman: No.

Prosecution: You've signed at least one N.D.A., right?

Showman: Yes.

Prosecution: What do they say?

Showman: That you have to be silent for 80 to 100 years.

Prosecution: Do you need the N.D.A.'s to remind you?

Showman: No, but they help.

Prosecution: Who do the N.D.A.'s apply to?

Showman: Anyone who is deployed.

DEFENSE EXAMINING MS. JIHRLEAH SHOWMAN

Defense (Coombs): N.D.A. agreements actually say you cannot disclose for 80 to 100 years?

Showman: Been several years since I've looked at one. Don't know if the N.D.A. says that or not.

Defense (Coombs): But you recall them saying you can't say anything for 80 to 100 years?

Showman: Yes.

MS. JIHRLEAH SHOWMAN PERMANENTLY EXCUSED

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